Jumat, 09 Desember 2011

About Indonesian Gambir ( Gambier )

Gambier is a kind of dried sap derived from extracts of leaves and twigs of plants squeeze of the same name (Uncaria gambier Roxb.). In Indonesia gambir is mostly used in menyirih. Usability is more important is the material tanners and dyes. Gambier also contains catechins / catechine (catechin), a natural material that are antioxidants. India imports 68% Gambier from Indonesia, and use it as a compound menyirih.

Herbaceous plant with a branching vine half lengthwise. Leaves oval, elongated, tapered tip, the surface not hairy (smooth), with short petiole. Compound with a crown of flowers arranged pink or green; short petals, crown flowers funnel-shaped (like a flower coffee), five stamens, and fruit a capsule with two spaces. [1]

Gambir cultivated on land altitude 200-800 m above sea level. Starting from the topography is rather flat up on the hillside. Usually grown as a plantation crop in the yard or garden on the edge of the forest. Cultivation is usually semiintensif, seldom given a fertilizer but cleaning and trimming done. In Sumatra planting activities have been disturbing the protected area.

Gambier is a hot water extract of leaves and twigs of plants that disedimentasikan gambier and then printed and dried. Nearly 95% of production is made into this product, called betel masala bite or plan. Shape of the mold is usually cylindrical, resembles brown sugar. The color is blackish brown. Gambier (in interstate commerce known as Gambier) are usually shipped in 50kg packs. Another form of powder or "biscuit". Other names dalah catechu, gutta gambier, catechu pallidum (pale catechu).

The main producing areas of central and southern Sumatra.

Generally, gambier known originated from West Sumatra. Especially from the District 50 City, Coastal South (excl koto XI Tarusan young Siguntur Village). As production centers gambior, District 50 City is a strategic location and suitable for plantation investors.

The main usefulness is as a component menyirih, already known to the public archipelago, from Sumatra to Papua since at least 2500 years ago. Known, gambier stimulates lymph bile that help smooth the process in the stomach and intestines. Another function is as a mixture of drugs, such as burns, migraine headaches, diarrhea, dysentery medicine, mouthwash, gargle, mouth ulcer medications, and skin pain medication (smeared); tanners, and textile dyes.

Functions are also being developed as an adhesive for plywood or particle board. This product still has to compete with other sources of wood adhesives, such as Acacia mearnsii bark, wood Schinopsis balansa, as well as skin Caesalpinia spinosa pods produced another country.

The main ingredient and is also contained by many other members of Uncaria are flavonoids (mainly gambiriin), catechins (up to 51%), tanning agents (22-50%), and a number of alkaloids (such as gambirtannin and dihydro-and oxo derivatives her. [ 2] In addition, gambier used modern medicines produced German states, as well as coloring paints, clothing.

When viewed from the availability of land in West Sumatra then seen the limitations. About 60 percent of existing land is hilly and sloping lands and 15 percent of it has been agreed for agricultural land. In total only about 450 000 ha of land available for potential expansion of plantation crops.

In West Sumatra gambier plants grow well in the area Limapuluh Town, South Coast and other regions II level. Fifty Cities in the District as much as 11 937 ha with a production of 7379 tons per year. In the South Coastal District as much as 2469 ha with a production of 688 tons per year and other district covering an area of ​​175 ha large sebahagian not yet in production.

Widely on the potential and meet the economies of scale to be developed. The number of processing business unit gambier in West Sumatra was recorded as many as 3571 units with a workforce of 6908 people and an investment of Rp 1,029,614,000. Data gambir production in West Sumatra is actually not yet available in full, particularly for domestic consumption. When referring to the 1997 production figures and export figures in the same year it exported 98 percent of production gambier and 2 percent is consumed domestically.

In other countries also have similar products offered such as gambier tannin from Acacia mearnsii bark, wood Schinopsis balansa. In 1983 produced 10,000 tons of tannin-based adhesives Acacia mearnsii in South Africa. In New Zealand has begun production of 8000 tons per year of tannin-based adhesives from Pinus radiata bark. In Peru produced Tara tannin from the bark of Caesalpinia spinosa fruit which will also be used as raw material adhesive.

Prospects gambir as adhesive raw material for wood-based materials or materials other berlignosellulosa seen there.

Gambier can also be used as the main raw material adhesive glue plywood and particle board. When gambir exported are used as raw material for plywood adhesive in the new country will meet the needs of three plywood mills with a capacity of 5000-6000 m3/bulan. This would still be too small compared to the needs of plywood mills and particle board that is in the island of Sumatra. And gambier can be processed in the country into another form of current, such as biscuits and flour gambier form in accordance with world market demand. Country India alone requires as much as 6000 tons per year gambier. Seen that the prospects overseas are still open.

Judging from the aspect of conservation is also found growing on the land including the area of ​​protected areas with one of the characteristics kelerangan diatads 40 percent. Fifty Cities in the District of gambier plantations mainly in Limestone District IX, Mahat, Base Koto New and Suliki Gunung Mas. Lime-producing district IX is the largest gambier (nearly 2 / 3 of total production) with the main areas of Nagari beehive. Gambier planting area is large sebahagian originated in Sub-Watershed (DAS) and DAS Mahat Right Kampar.

Based on the map of Forest Land Use Agreement (TGHK), the function of the two sub-watershed forest area is 64.30 percent as protected areas and 35.70 percent as the region that may be cultivated (area exploitation). The protected area consists of 61.37 percent (204,412 ha) as a protected forest, and 2.93 percent as forest nature reserves

We can supply the following grade gambier:

Gambier Bootch
Gambier Coin
Gambier Superior
Cube Black Gambier
Cube Brown Gambier

Please Contact : oke.farida@gmail.com